Simply put, a solar panel works by allowing photons, or particles of light, to knock electrons free from atoms, generating a flow of electricity. Solar panels actually comprise many, smaller units called photovoltaic cells. (Photovoltaic simply means they convert sunlight into electricity.) Many cells linked together make up a solar panel.
extracted from https://www.livescience.com/41995-how-do-solar-panels-work.html.
Solar panels convert sunlight into direct current (DC)
An inverter converts electricity from DC to alternating current AC
The AC powers your home
Extra electricity may be used by the grid
Solar panels soak up sunlight for roughly 6 hours a day and provides electricity for up to 18 hours (based on your electricity usage). An inverter is a device that is connected to the panel to convert the DC charge into AC current. Extra power that is generated is stored in Gel batteries which is used to power the Grid (the set of appliances that are connected to your circuit).
Solar panel designs has advanced throughout the years from being installed on ceilings to having fields of solar panels to generate power to fuel industrial sectors. Invest Solar Suggests you read up on the Terminology involved in Solar Technology.